WHY REPARATIONS

Why Reparations

It is increasingly more apparent that the need for urgent, yet careful intervention must come not only from the elected officials sworn to protect the commonwealth of their principal constituency and community, but that they must work alongside those descendants of enslaved Africans who have been taken from their nativism and freedom to do so effectively as they have been systematically discriminated against, and enslaved in the United States of America:

More than 4,000,000 Africans and their descendants were enslaved in the United States and the colonies that became the United States of America from 1619 to 1865.

The institutions of indentured servitude and slavery were constitutionally and statutorily sanctioned by the United States from 1789 unto today as slavery is still constitutionally sanctioned by the United States Thirteenth Amendment upon conviction by of crime and practiced upon arrest.

Africans enslaved from the continental mainlands and islands of Africa, and the Americas thereafter, have been preemptively misnomered and identified as “Negro,” “Colored,” “Black,” and “African-American,” having been subversively subjected to the laws pertaining to those titles and disconnected from their actual and pre-existing tribal and ethnic identities, nationalities, freedom and birthrights, subversively being nationalised as United States citizens to which they have been prisoners of war for over 400 years.

Reconstruction Era enhanced the violations of formerly enslaved, now freedman’s social, civil, economic, and political rights as Special Field Order No. 15 proclamation and Freedmen’s Bureau Act existed to grant 40 acres of land and a mule to freed slaves in addition to aiding freedmen with food, housing, protection, education, health care, and employment contracts with private landowners, including the distribution of land, schools for their children, and military courts to ensure these rights, but was completely revoked and disbanded by President Andrew Johnson and President Ulysses S. Grant to where even those millions of dollars in capital and assets acclimated by those freedmen in spite of these violations was stolen from them in the bankruptcy of the Freedman’s Bank and establishment of “Black codes” to which they were constrained to wage labor to survive, often by force for little to no money at all.

Following the 13th Amendment, the United States government at the federal, state, and local levels continued to specifically perpetuate, condone, and profit from practices that continued to oppress, brutalize, and enslave Africans through Black codes of 1865, the Berlin Conference of 1884, national Sexual Sterilization Acts from 1907 to 1970, the Highway Act of 1956, sharecropping, convict leasing, Black suffrage, redlining, displacement and inadequate housing by government housing policies that include discriminatory VA/FHA practices including “Urban Renewal” and a variety of local and federal “affordable” housing programs, gentrification, the Compulsory Education Act of 1922, the War on Poverty in 1964, the War on Drugs in 1971, the Crime Bill of 1984, and disproportionate treatment at the hands of the criminal justice system.

Preceding and following the Third Enforcement Act, a civil rights act of 1871 to empower U.S. Presidents in suspending the writ of habeas corpus and combating the Ku Klux Klan and other ethnic supremacy organizations, hundreds of European supremacists have taken political office United States local, state, and federal government offices both publicly and in secret, and thousands have been granted special privileges to advance in various careers and positions of power in businesses, institutions, and government. Those dozens out of hundreds known and unknown, notable Ku Klux Klan members to take political office in the United States are:
  • George Gordon, one of the first Ku Klux Klan members and was the first Grand Dragon for the district of Tennessee, writing its Precept, a book describing its organization, purpose, and principles 1867 before becoming a Civil War general and member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Tennessee’s 10th district from 1907 to 1911.
  • Joseph Emerson Brown, 42nd Governor of Georgia from 1857 to 1865, Georgia United States Senator from 1880 to 1891, and Chief Justice of the Georgia Supreme Court from 1868 to 1870 who led the Georgia Ku Klux Klan in 1868 and nullified Negro voting rights while expanding KKK membership.
  • John Brown Gordon, a Democrat elected by the Georgia state legislature who served as a US Senator, from 1873 to 1880 and again from 1891 to 1897, the 53rd Governor of Georgia from 1886 to 1890, a general in the Confederate States Army and a titular head of the Ku Klux Klan in Georgia in the late 1860’s.
  • John Tyler Morgan, an Alabama U.S. Senator from 1877 to 1907 and Grand Dragon of the Ku Klux Klan in Alabama who encouraged the migration of negros out of the South to Hawaii, to Cuba, and to the Philippines, and both introduced and championed several bills to prevent Negro and Colored peoples right to vote and legalize the practice of lynching them in the Deep South. Confederate soldier and the founder of the North Carolina chapter William L. Saunders, the 11th Secretary of State of North Carolina from 1879 to 1891.
  • Edmund Pettus, United States Senator from Alabama from 1897 to 1907 whose campaign relied on his successes of organizing and popularizing the Alabama Ku Klux Klan as Grand Dragon, opposing the constitutional amendments that empowered former slaves to the status of free citizens following the Civil War.
  • John Watson Morton, an American Confederate soldier and founder of the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan after the Civil War, who then served as the Tennessee Secretary of State from 1901 to 1909 and initiated various infamous KKK members before serving as the Grand Cyclops of the Louisiana chapter.
  • Theodore G. Bilbo, a Ku Klux Klan member during his time as a member of the Mississippi Senate from 1908 to 1912, Lieutenant Governor of Mississippi from 1912 to 1916, Democratic Governor from 1928 to 1932, and U.S. Senator for Mississippi from 1935 to 1947.
  • Democrat Clifford Walker was the Attorney General of Georgia in 1915 to1920 and 64th Governor of Georgia from 1923 to 1927 as a Ku Klux Klan member while governor in secret. Edward L. Jackson, the 34th Secretary of State of Indiana from 1916 to 1917, 36th Secretary of State of Indiana from 1920 to 1924, and 32nd Governor of Indiana from 1925 to 1929, accepted the support of the Indiana Ku Klux Klan and attempted to bribe former Gov. Warren T. McCray with $10,000 to appoint a Klansman to a local office.
  • The novel “The Clansman: A Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan” made film “The Birth of a Nation” was screened and celebrated in the White House under Woodrow Wilson’s 1913 to 1921 Presidency.
  • President Warren G. Harding, sworn into the Ku Klux Klan in the Greenroom of the White House in 1921 to 1923. Bibb Graves, the 38th Governor of Alabama from 1927 to 1931 and the Exalted Cyclops (chapter president) of the Montgomery, Alabama chapter of the Ku Klux Klan.
  • Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black, a U.S. Senator from 1927 to 1937 and Ku Klux Klan member at the time he became a Supreme Court Justice, known today as one of the most influential Supreme Court justices in the 20th century. 33rd Mayor of Los Angeles in 1929 to 1933, John Clinton Porter, a senior member of the Ku Klux Klan during its celebrated and popularized resurgence in the 1920s where his ideals of “reform politics and xenophobic Protestant populism” influenced his leadership and the state of California. President Harry S. Truman, a Ku Klux Klan member before becoming the president responsible for integrating the army in 1945 to 1953.
  • Elmer David Davies, Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee from 1954 to 1957 and Ku Klux Klan member in Louisiana before being nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1939 to 1957 to sit as a Judge on the U.S District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee.
  • U.S. Senator Robert Byrd, a Ku Klux Klan Grand Kleagle in West Virginia in the 1940s, recruiting 150 of his friends and associates to create a chapter in Sophia, West Virginia before becoming a member of Virginia’s 6th District U.S House of Representatives, Secretary of Senate Democratic Conference, Senate Majority Whip, Chair of the Senate Democratic Caucus, Senate Minority Leader, President pro tempore emeritus of the United States Senate
  • Birth of a Nation was the first American motion picture to be screened in the White House, viewed there by President Woodrow Wilson. Originally called “The Clansman” in 1915, it was a film about White clansmen saving White women from ravaged Black men who would seek these women as prey to rape. It was a propaganda film to subvert Black men to the image of being savage, and make pure the actions of the KKK during the time. Laws and the perjurious propaganda sponsored and endorsed by the United States government enforced the public, private, personal, and professional dehumanization of Black life, encouraging its fully recognized citizens to further vilify, torment, perturb, antagonize, criminalize, terrorize, and murder the descednants of American enslaved Africans with government connivance, complicity, conspiracy and collusion. Over 4,700 lynchings were the result of the laws until the late 1960’s. The massacres of freed Africans and the blazing of their communities (despite Africans’ independent abilities to do for themselves and leave others completely alone) killed thousands and displaced hundreds of thousands between 1917 and 1923 alone; obliterating 23 Black independently thriving cities and towns across the nation, creating abominably notable atrocities like the Red Summer of 1919, the Greenwood Tulsa Riots of 1921, and the Rosewood massacre of 1923.
    The 3/5 Compromise made the number of seats that a state would hold in the United States House of Representatives obtain the benefit of apportioned representatives on the basis of their total population for two years. Slaves were considered 3/5s a person, thus adding more representation to states with Black-African slaves. This would mean more representation against Black life. Until the 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1870, which was not fully supported until The Voting Rights Act of 1965 due to discriminatory statewide voting practices across the nation, the descendants of enslaved Africans were involuntarily sub-socialized into a civilization of white supremacy, unprotected by the laws of the land permitted to its citizens. Even into the 21st century, the practice of gerrymandering and the creation of “majority-minority” districts still contributes to Black Suffrage today.

    The warfare, thievery, enslavement, and genocide that flourished in the United States of America constituted an immoral and inhumane deprivation of Africans’ peoplehood and culture, birthrights, citizenship rights, human rights, unalienable rights, indigenous people’s rights, and denied them the fruits of their own labor.

    The perpetual violations of the United States Constitution to abide by its treaties as supreme law of the land, bounding Judges in every state, state constitutions and laws to the contrary notwithstanding, have transgressed Indigenous Black Americans’ land sovereignty, peoplehood and culture, birthrights, citizenship rights, human rights, unalienable rights, indigenous people’s rights, and denied them the fruits of their own labor.

    The statutes that have enforced population control since the threshold of the 20th century has sterilized roughly 70,000 Black women by federally funded family planning programs commissioned by the United States government. As a routinely required compulsory and coercive prescription, the first sterilization statute of 1907 unto the last passed in 1970 enacted policies that legalized the forced sterilization of women directly based on race and class. The intersection between race and class status made black women the most vulnerable to sterilizations… North Carolina for example sterilized 1,620 women between the years 1960 and 1968 with 1,023 of them being Black; 56% of them under age 20. The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, taking place between 1932 and 1972 by the United States Public Health Service to also lends to the medical mischief, malpractice, and malice of the United States government to the descendants of enslaved Africans. Today, Black maternal mortality is 4 times that of whites. President of the American Medical Association and prominent leader in the eugenics movement published an open letter in the Virginia Medical Monthly requesting a “scientific explanation of the sexual perversion in the Negro of the present day” which was met with the suggestion to castrate Black men to prevent them from such criminal activity. There is an entire medical center in Richmond, Virginia named the Hunter Holmes McGuire VA Medical Center.
    The War on Drugs was subsequently discovered to have been made, manufactured, managed and militarized by the United States government to commodify and capitalize on the international industrialization of drugs and other illegal substances; yet was propagated as a campaign to end it. This created a public health crisis within the communities that the American descendants of enslaved Africans were deluded into, creating hyper-local warfare between them at the intersections of federally funded architecture and engineering for Black subjugation to poverty; furthering the 13th Amendment’s re-constitution of slavery while continuing to vilify, torment, perturb, antagonized, criminalize, terrorize, brutalize, and liquidate Black life.
    The School to Prison Pipeline, being the advantageous criminalizing of disadvantaged minors in public schools, created school disturbance laws, zero tolerance policies and practices, and increased police presence in schools to ultimately subject children to juvenile detention centers creating for them this pathway to prison. With these children being nurtured in disadvantaged and impoverished communities, which we know was the architecture of the U.S. government, the zero tolerance policies and school resource officers have further criminalized Black youth in schools, where, Black youth make up 14% of the national youth population, but 43% of boys and 34% of girls in juvenile facilities, and suffer a deep persisting, yet apathetically ignored traumatic stress from the transgressions against their lives since birth.
    The opportunity for the American descendants of enslaved Africans to live in decent neighborhoods upon their great migration from the south to the north was met with the systematic denial of credit, insurance, loans, fair mortgages, real-estate access and entry into substandard homes and communities. This was the impetus for the current neighborhood racial segregation, workforce mitigation, racial wealth disparities, concentrated liquorlining, denied financial services, environmental racism, digital redlining, and political redlining today. As late as 2005-2008 when banks sold Black people subprime mortgages to Black people they referred to “mud people” and to those subprime lending as “ghetto loans,” instead of jail time some of the executives responsible for the American Recession of 2007-2009 went on to serve in financial, economic, diplomatic executive positions for the 45th President of the United States. Today, government programs said to generate economic growth in targeted communities more than often, if not always, lead to the gentrification of those communities, influxing more affluent residents and businesses into them with empowerment zoning to directly target neighborhoods affected by redlining, the war on poverty, and war on drugs which displaces existing residents due to their inability to afford the new costs of living, leaving people homeless, jobless, and having to start anew, again; redlining in the obverse.
    The 13th Amendment re-constituted slavery and targeted the American descendants of enslaved Africans for laws that were created to solely to vilify, torment, perturb, criminalize, victimize, terrorize, and extinguish Black life. Convict leasing would emerge to enslave Africans well into the 20th century, often generating over 50% of a state’s revenue. As an evolution into today, the U.S. correctional population holds 7 million people within it; African Americans making up over 2.5 million of those people.

    A preponderance of scholarly, legal, commercial and community evidentiary records and documentation, as well as popular culture markers, constitute the basis for redress into the ongoing effects of the institution of slavery and its legacy of persistent systemic structures of discrimination on the living descendants of enslaved Africans and their societies in the United States of America as they have been subjected to over 500 years of social, political, economic, and ecological holocaust within the structures of Euro-colonialism to which the nation abides.

    Preceeding the 13th Amendment, the United States government at the federal, state, and local levels created, condoned, and profited from practices that oppressed, brutalized, and enslaved Africans well beyond the mentioned Negro Act of 1740, Plantation Act of 1740, Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, Disruptive Preemption Act of 1841, and National Bank Act of 1863.

    • Having been consistently and widely impoverished by discriminatory wages paid in every sector of the local economy regardless of credentials and experience, have experienced disproportionate unemployment rates and reduced opportunities to fully participate in the local job market;
    • Having been systematically excluded from historic and present private economic development and community investments and, therefore, black-owned businesses have not received the benefits of these investments;
    • Having been segregated from mainstream education and within present day school programs that include AG, AP, and Honors;
    • Experiencing the denial of education through admission, retention and graduation rates of every level of education in WNC and through discriminatory disciplinary practices;
    • Receiving inadequate, if not detrimental, health care as exemplified by disproportionate morbidities and mortality rates that result from the generational trauma of systemic racism, discriminatory treatment by medical professionals, and discriminatory medical practices such as involuntary sterilizations, denial of adequate testing, denial of preventative and curative procedures;
    • Having been unjustly targeted by law enforcement and criminal justice procedures, incarcerated at disproportionate rates and subsequently excluded from full participation in the benefits of citizenship that include voting, employment, housing and health care;
    • Having disproportionately been forced to reside in, adjacent to, or near Brown Zones and other toxic sites that negatively impact their health and property;  
    • Having disproportionately been limited to the confined routes of travel provided by public transportation;
    • Having disproportionately suffered from the isolation of food deserts and childcare deserts;
    • Having an unemployment rate more than twice the current white unemployment rate;
    • Federally funded discrimination and displacement, 
    • Having an average of less than one-sixteenth of the wealth of white families, a disparity that has worsened, not improved, since 1865.

    The descendants of enslaved Africans in the United States of America have suffered and continue to suffer from the United States’:

  • pseudoscientific subordination to civility, humanity and society,
  • international kidnapping and global human trafficking,
  • physical torture and exploitation,
  • bondage discipline sadism and masochism,
  • religious manipulation, spiritual atrophy, and iconoclasm,
  • ravage adulterating and bastardization,
  • psychological menticide and torment,
  • ethnic antagonization and appropriation,
  • cognitive paralyzation and cerebral traumatization,
  • defamation of character and identity theft,
  • standardized eugenics, sterilization, and genocide,
  • compulsory and coercive medical malpractice,
  • federally funded discrimination and displacement,
  • financial mischief and occupational exclusion,
  • illegal and unlawful seizure and destruction of land and property,
  • asset annihilation and capital bankruptcy,
  • economic depression and systematic oppression,
  • environmental toxification and degradation,
  • ecological opiating and inebriation,
  • accredited miseducation and authorized misinformation,
  • endorsed racism and municipally sponsored prejudice,
  • exonerated lynchings and absolved massacres,
  • overt vilification and unjust criminalization,
  • corrupt policing and mass incarceration,
  • excessive convictions and exaggerated sentencing,
  • social inequality and justified incivility,
  • violation of their 4th amendment right pertaining to illegal and unlawful search and seizure,
  • violation of their 5th amendment right of private property not taken for public use without just compensation,
  • violation of their 6th amendment right of no judgements by impartial juries,
  • violation of their 8th amendment right of non-excessive bails and inflictions of cruel and unusual punishments,
  • violation of their 14th amendment rights sections 1 & 2 for no creation and enforcement of laws to abridge the rights of naturalized citizens of the United States, deprivation of life, liberty, and property without due process of law, unequal protections of the laws, and Indian non-taxation for those Black Americans,
  • violation of their 15th amendment right to vote for 94 years.T